Vol 10, No 2 (2015)


Academician A.A. Zavarzin scientific progeny of histologists-evolutionists

Gololobov V.G.


The 130th anniversary of academician A.A. Zavarzin, the founder of evolutional histology and the author of fundamental theory of parallel series of tissue development will held in 2016. Being an outstanding scientist and organizer, he managed to create a powerful school of histologists-evolutionists in the Soviet Union. The paper contains short variant of history foundation and analysis of the most outstanding achievements of his school, which are contributing towards perspective development of histology
Genes & Cells. 2015;10(2):6-10
pages 6-10 views

Cancer stem cells: 20 years behind

Mingaleeva R.N., Miftakhova R.R., Rizvanov A.A.


The biology of cancer stem cells (CSC) has been investigated and debated for past 20 years. Owning to their exceptional plasticity and the complexity of controlled processes CSC inspire the development of new research techniques for cell isolation and targeted therapy. This review is an attempt to summarize recent data and trends in the field of cancer stem cells and discuss potential and weaknesses of new research techniques
Genes & Cells. 2015;10(2):11-15
pages 11-15 views

Technologies of cellular antitumor immune response induction in vitro

Sennikov S.V., Kulikova E.V., Obleukhova I.A., Shevchenko J.A.


Dendritic cells are “professional” antigen-presenting cells and the most potent stimulators of various immune responses of the organism, including antitumor. Modern studies have shown that an effective antitumor immune response doesn't occur in patients with malignant tumors. This is largely due to a decrease in functional activity of dendritic cells in cancer patients through irregularities in the maturation process to a functionally active form and in the antigen presentation process to naive T lymphocytes This review describes the main stages in technology of cellular antitumor immune response induction in vitro, aimed at resolution of the problems blocking the full functioning of dendritic cells, and additional stimulation of antitumor immune response, as well as prospects for the technology development
Genes & Cells. 2015;10(2):16-22
pages 16-22 views

Targeted radionuclide therapy: current status and prospects

Vodeneev V.A., Zvyagin A.V., Shilyagina N.Y., Kulikov D.A., Kulikov A.V., Gudkov S.V.


One of the intensively developing approaches to the treatment of oncologic diseases is directed (targeted) radionuclide therapy. Radionuclide therapy avoids the side effects associated with external beam therapy. Furthermore, it is possible to combine the processes instrumental diagnostics and radiotherapy (theranostics), which leads to personalize the treatment regimen for each individual patient. in this review, we discuss the fundamentals of targeted radionuclide therapy, including the characteristics of the radionuclides and biomolecular targeting moieties information on the targeted radionuclide therapy drugs for approved for clinical use is provided. Prospects and limitations of the targeted radionuclide therapy and their implementation in clinical practice are discussed
Genes & Cells. 2015;10(2):23-29
pages 23-29 views

Umbilical cord-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells: biological properties and clinical applications

Arutyunyan I.V., Makarov A.V., Elchaninov A.V., Fatkhudinov T.K.


The article presents the current literature evidence and own data on the origin and properties of human umbilical cord-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells including proliferative potential, plasticity, stability of caryotype and phenotype, and immunomodulatory activity A review of clinical trials using this cell type is performed Prospects for the use of multipotent stromal cells, derived from umbilical cord, in cell transplantation associate with the need for specialized biobanking and transplant standardization criteria
Genes & Cells. 2015;10(2):30-38
pages 30-38 views

Some physicochemical and biological characteristics of 3D printed constructions based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphates for bone defects reconstruction

Sergeeva N.S., Komlev V.S., Sviridova I.K., Kirsanova V.A., Akhmedova S.A., Shanskiy Y.D., Kuvshinova E.A., Fedotov A.Y., Teterina A.Y., Egorov A.A., Zobkov Y.V., Barinov S.M.


A creation of personalized constructions for tissue engineering of bone tissue is very perspective biomedical technological trend. An aim of our work was studying physicochemical characteristics, cyto- and biocompatibility of 3D printed constructions based on sodium alginate and three calcium phosphates species (tricalcium phosphates, carbonated hydroxyapatite, and octacalcium phosphate). The methods of 3D constructions producing included 3D printing of components with crosslinking agent (CaCl2), their freezing, sublimation, “forced shrinkage”, γ-ray sterilization (15 kGr). A structure of 3D constructions, their porosity and strength characteristics were studied. The cytocompatibility of 3D constructions and matrix-for-cell properties were investigated in vivo on a model of human osteosarcoma MG-63 cell line by means of MTT assay. The biocompatibility of 3D constructions was studied on the model of subcutaneous implantation in mice up to 12 weeks Using scanning electron microscopy it was found that all 3 types of constructions have a lamellar structure of alginate component with spherical inclusions of calcium phosphate Total porosity of species was 54,5-63,9%. Calcium phosphates in the constructions reserved initial phase composition Compressive strength of 3D constructions depended on inorganic component and was 1,8-3,7 MPa with ultimate strain 12,3-12,6%. All types of 3D constructions were cytocompatible in vitro, demonstrated good matrix-forcells properties, and had supported cell proliferation for 2 weeks. in results of subcataneous in vivo test all constructions demonstrated biocompatibility with slow bioresorption of organic and inorganic components. Received data proved the promising outlook for further improvement of 3D printing and investigations of described 3D constructions as osteoplastic materials
Genes & Cells. 2015;10(2):39-45
pages 39-45 views

The role of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in the realization of the adaptation mechanisms of bone-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells to hypoxia under cultivation with growth factor bFGF

Poleshko A.G., Volotovski I.D.


The simulation of conditions in vivo under cultivation the stem cells in vitro as well gas media content (low O2 concentrate) and different growth factors presence is one of the feasible way of growth rate of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSC) culture increase when kept differentiation potential and maintained high viability. Oxygen metabolites: reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species are the most interesting for studying the influence of above characteristics on proliferation activity and viability of MMSC So it is currently important to identify ROS and NO role in MMSC by cooperative cultivation with growth factor bFGF under hypoxia. The research was aimed to study an effect of 5% hypoxia on Н2О2, О2- and NO content in MMSC from bone marrow in the cell culture in the presence or absence bFGF It was found out that both 5% hypoxia and bFGF (7 ng/ml) decrease the intracellular Н2О2, О2- and NO concentration on the background of elevated HIF1α gene expression and depressed p53 gene expression. At the same time simultaneous action of hypoxia and bFGF promotes minimal ROS and NO generation, maximizes the effects on HIF1α and p53 genes expression probable for the genome protection Taking into account the increasing the proliferative activity and viability of MMSC culture under these conditions that was shown previously by us, obtained results indicate the regulatory role of ROS and NO in the long-term MMSC adaptation to 5% hypoxia, simulating O2 physiologic content as in vivo
Genes & Cells. 2015;10(2):49-53
pages 49-53 views

Antitumor effect of hybrid nanocomplexes containing nanoparticles of orthovanadates rare earth elements and cholesterol

Goltsev A.N., Babenko N.N., Gaevskaya Y.A., Chelombytko O.V., Bondarovich N.A., Dubrava T.G., Ostankov M.V., Dimitrov A.Y., Klochkov V.K., Kavok N.S., Malyukin Y.V.


An actual task of current oncology is the search for the structures, enabling to selectively affect the tumor stem cells, on the expansion rate of those the activity of oncologic process depends. Perspective in this aspect is the use of nanostructures selectively recognizing and inactivating tumor stem cells. In the research there was studied the effect of synthesized hybrid nanocomplexes based on nanoparticles of rare earth orthovanadates GdYV04:Eu3+, cholesterol and hydrophobic luminescent stain Dil on functional activity of Ehrlich carcinoma cells and expression in them of nanog, oct-4, sox-2 genes After pre-treatment of Ehrlich carcinoma cells with nanocomplexes there was shown an inhibition of tumor growth in vivo due to inactivation of the most carcinogenic CD44hi cells, which was accompanied with the reduced expression rate of the studied genes in total pool of cells The findings contribute to the understanding of the effect mechanisms of orthovanadates and open the prospects to apple new forms of nanocomposites in treatment of oncology diseases
Genes & Cells. 2015;10(2):54-60
pages 54-60 views

Effect of decellularization with sDs and Triton X-100 detergent solutions on the strength capacities of small caliber arteries

Akhmedov S.D., Lugovsky V.A., Andreev S.L., Rebenkova M.S., Rogovskaya Y.V., Skurihin I.M., Vecherskiy Y.Y., Afanasyev S.A.


The research is dedicated to evaluation of the effect of the human mammary artery decellularization with 1 % solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 1% solution of Triton X-100 during 2 hours on its morphological structure and its strength capacities As a result of decellularization all the cellular elements were eliminated from the vessel. Nevertheless, it appeared to be possible to preserve complex spatial structure of the vascular wall. The process of decellularization did not change significantly collagen basis of the vascular wall Although, under 2 hour effect of the detergents one could see lowering collagen concentration down to 80% in intima, media and adventitia. However, even in these circumstances the strength of the vessel was not less than 46% versus that of intact vessels The obtained data are important for the further study aimed at the development of a new generation of vascular implants
Genes & Cells. 2015;10(2):61-64
pages 61-64 views

Expression of pluripotency transcription factors in human third molar tooth germ derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells transfected by plasmid pBud-Sox2-Oct4

Solovyeva V.V., Blatt N.L., Guseva D.S., Yalvac M.E., Sahin F., Islamov R.R., Rizvanov A.A.


In this study, the double expression cassette plasmid, based on pBudCE4 1 vector encoding transcription factors S0X2 and 0CT4 was constructed using standard gene engineering techniques. Expression of recombinant genes was confirmed by immunoblotting. It is shown that genetic modification of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSC), isolated from human third molar tooth germs, with resulting recombinant plasmid increases the level of expression both, transcription factors S0X2 and OCT4 in the treated cells, and also transcription factor NAN0G. Analysis of histological sections of subcutaneous Matrigel implants, containing fluorescently labeled MMSC, showed that genetic modification had no effect on cell viability
Genes & Cells. 2015;10(2):65-70
pages 65-70 views

A morphological investigation of the polyhydroxybutyrate/valerate and polycaprolactone biodegradable small-diameter vascular graft biocompatibility

Antonova L.V., Mukhamadiyarov R.A., Mironov A.V., Burago A.Y., Velikanova E.A., Sidorova O.D., Kudryavtseva Y.A., Barbarash O.L., Barbarash L.S.


We studied the integration of polyhydroxybutyrate/ valerate (PHBV)/polycaprolactone (PCL) biodegradable electrospun vascular grafts with organism cells and tissues Grafts were implanted into abdominal aorta of Wistar rats for twelve months. All the grafts were patent during the whole period of implantation. Twelve months postimplantation, 25% of the grafts were intact, and 25% of the grafts had parietal thrombus only at anasthomotic sites and thrombusfree surface at all other sites Regarding other grafts, we revealed minor connective tissue hyperplasia in 41 7% of the grafts, and an inflammatory infiltrate in the part of the arterial wall in 8. 3% of the grafts. Using original technique of the morphological investigation, we found that polymer degradation was accompanied by the replacement of the graft wall by various cells (macrophages, fibroblast-like cells, epithelioid cells, and multinucleated giant cells) with the formation of extracellular matrix instead of the polymer scaffold Therefore, long-term patency and the results of the morphological study confirmed the possibility to use PHBV/PCL tubular polymer construct in the creation of small-diameter vascular grafts
Genes & Cells. 2015;10(2):71-77
pages 71-77 views

Efficiency of IL-2 and IL-15 combined use for activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes in vitro

Abakushina E.V., Marizina Y.V., Neprina G.S.


0ne of the modern approaches for cancer treatment is based on the application of immunotherapy using activated cytotoxic lymphocytes. Search of methodological approaches for the preparation of activated lymphocytes in vitro is relevant. As a result of this study, the method for activation and culturing of lymphocytes for cancer patients have been perfected using cytokine IL-2 and IL-15. Peripheral mononuclear cells of cancer patients were culture using two different mediums based on RPMi-1640 with IL-2 for 10 days and X-vivo20 supplemented with IL-2 and IL-15 for 14 days. The expression of activation markers (CD38, CD69, CD25, HLA-DR and CD314) and subpopulations of lymphocytes were evaluated by the method of flow cytometry every 2 days. The expression of activation markers of lymphocytes increased after 3 days of culture in the first medium and after 5 days in the second one. We revealed that the activation of lymphocytes was faster in medium based on RPMI with IL-2, but the proliferation and viability of lymphocytes were lower than in the second medium. The culture medium based on RPMI with IL-2 can be recommended for more quickly obtaining of lymphokine-activated killer cells. The medium based on X-vivo20 with a combination of IL-2 and IL-15 can be recommended for a longer cultivation of lymphocytes and for escalating of lymphokine-activated killer cells. it has been shown that the combination of cytokines IL-2 and IL-15 not only has a positive influence on the proliferation activity of the lymphocytes and the expression of activation markers, but also on their viability.
Genes & Cells. 2015;10(2):78-85
pages 78-85 views

Development of dispersed cell system of cervical epithelium in human prenatal ontogenesis

Zheglova M.Y., Danilov R.K.


A histological characteristic of the epithelial lining of the cervix is the most important criterion for evaluating its reactive changes. The aim of the research is to give the morphofunctional characteristics of the epithelial cells (epitheliocytes) of the cervix in human prenatal ontogenesis. 50 embryos and prefetuses from 4 to 12 weeks of fetal development, and 64 fetuses from 13 to 30 weeks of gestation have been studied Analysis was performed by using the histochemical, morphometric, cytospectrophotometric and statistical methods. Paramesonephric duct development occurs involving the coelomic epithelium, mesonephric duct epithelium and undifferentiated cells in the part of the urogenital blastema. in the late 12th and early 13th week of fetal development there is a particular area where a close interaction of the epithelial lining of the combined paramesonephric and mesonephric ducts and the dorsal wall of the urogenital area is found. The connection of the uterine channel with the external environment is formed from 13th to 20th week of development. invagination of the epithelial lining of the urogenital sinus towards the united paramesonephric ducts and the formation of a genital cord take part in this process. The junction of two kinds of epithelia: the vaginal mucosa and cervical mucosa is formed since 25th weeks of gestation. in the basal part of the cervical epithelium the individual cells are detected. According to the results of the research these cells should be classified as a derivative of the epithelial lining of the urogenital sinus. They retain their determination and due to the character of their localization may be referred to the dispersed cellular system of the mucous membrane of the cervix.
Genes & Cells. 2015;10(2):86-89
pages 86-89 views

Supravital lanthanoid staining for scanning electron microscopy of biological objects

Novikov I.A., Subbot A.M., Fedorov A.A., Griboedova I.G., Antonov E.N., Vakhrushev I.V.


Since modern scanning electron microscopes are capable of low-vacuum mode and back-scattered electron detection, no other sample preparation, except for heavy metal staining, is necessary. Rare earth chlorides were used as contrast agents to study ocular tissues, cell cultures, and small invertebrates. It has been shown that supravital lanthanoid staining, if adjusted to meet the requirements of modern technology, significantly increases contrast of back-scattered electron images along with their informative value. Not only the microrelief but also internal structures (5-10 μm beneath the surface) of the samples can be visualized without 'classical' sample preparation. Selective accumulation of lantanoids in cell membranes is likely to be due to their binding to calcium ATPases. The developed method of lanthanoid staining enables the use of scanning electron microscopy for subsurface examination of biological objects
Genes & Cells. 2015;10(2):90-96
pages 90-96 views

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