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Vol 15, No 3 (2020)

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Open Access Open Access
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Evolutionary-histological studies of the doctor of medicine Vera Mikhailovna Danchakova

Rusakova S.E., Odintsova I.A., Slutskaya D.R.


The historical article presents material that analyzes the contributor from the first female histologists V.M. Danchakova in the study of problems of evolutionary histology and questions of normal and pathological histogenesis. Vera Mikhailovna Danchakova is a student of Professor A.A. Maksimov, the first woman, who defended a histological dissertation at the Imperial Military Medical Academy (1907). In foreign literature, her work is referred to as pioneering in the study of cells, which are now called stem cells. V.M. Danchakova made a significant contribution to the study of the evolutionary aspects of histogenesis of tissues with various cambial properties, for the first time showed the extragonadal origin of primary germ cells using the example of birds, and obtained new additional experimental data confirming A.A. Maksimov's unitary theory of hematopoiesis. Thanks to her research, the possibility of malignancy of stem and progenitor cells was shown for the first time. V.M. Danchakova was prompted by the study of generative cells (primary germ cells, gonocytes), as well as the influence of male and female sex hormones on sex differentiation in embryo-genesis. The results of her experiments using the method of tissue and cell cultures formed the basis for the development of the doctrine of the immune response "graft versus host”.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):8-13
pages 8-13 views

Immunological aspects of coronavirus disease caused by SARS-CoV-2

Abakushina E.V.


The pandemic outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading all over the world. Although some progress has been made in understanding the viral structure and invasion mechanism of coronaviruses that may cause severe syndrome, due to the limited understanding of the immune effects caused by SARS-CoV-2, it is difficult for us to prevent patients from developing the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and syndrome of cytokines storm, the major complications of coronavirus infection. In this review, we summarized immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 and described some mechanism of evasion from immune system. This may provide clue of using immune therapy as combine treatment to prevent the patient develop into ARDS and largely reduced complications.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):14-21
pages 14-21 views

Participation of ABC-transporters in lipid metabolism and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

Kotlyarov S.N., Kotlyarova A.A.


Atherosclerosis is one of the key causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is known that a leading role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis is played by a violation of lipid metabolism. ABC transporters provide lipid cell homeostasis, performing a number of transport functions - moving lipids inside the cell, in the plasma membrane, and also removing lipids from the cell. In a large group of ABC transporters, about 20 take part in lipid homeostasis, playing, among other things, an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. It was shown that cholesterol is not only a substrate for a number of ABC transporters, but also able to modulate their activity. Regulation of activity is carried out due to specific lipid-protein interactions.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):22-28
pages 22-28 views

Interaction of graphene oxide nanoparticles with cells of the immune system

Khramtsov P.V., Rayev M.B., Timganova V.P., Bochkova M.S., Zamorina S.A.


Graphene-based preparations are the most promising materials in biomedicine. This review is aimed at analyzing data on the interaction of graphene oxide nanoparticles with different types of cells of the immune system: neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, T- and B-lymphocytes, NK and iNKT cells. Scopus publications from 2011 to May 2020 were analyzed. The primary vector of the graphene oxide nanoparticles' effects is associated with cell activation and the formation of a proinflamma-tory profile of the immune response. At the same time, the functionalization of the graphene oxide surface with the biocompatible polymers leads to a decrease in its cytotoxicity, and in some cases, to suppression of cell activation. The interaction of graphene oxide nanoparticles with cells depends on numerous factors, such as direct and lateral sizes, oxidation state, functionalization, number of layers, 3D configuration, as well as the microbiological purity and pyrogenicity of graphene. Together, these characteristics determine whether graphene oxide nanoparticles must stimulate or suppress the immune system. These multidirectional possibilities of graphene oxide can be useful in the development of adjuvants, new drug delivery mechanisms, and modern biosensors.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):29-38
pages 29-38 views

Autologic platelet-rich plasma use in varicocelectomy

Epifanova M.V., Kostin A.A., Chalyy M.E., Gvasalia B.R., Gameeva E.V., Artemenko S.A., Epifanov A.A.


Varicocele is a disease that is diagnosed in approximately 10% of males' population. There is data of varicocele which consider the condition as one of the most common causes of male infertility. It is only surgical treatment, to date, that is effective one. However, there is still a group of patients whose fertility problem have not been resolved with the varicocelectomy, that have led scientists to find new ways for treating male infertility. Regenerative medicine and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), in particular, have recently grown up rapidly worldwide. Many preclinical and clinical trials have already demonstrated PRP-therapy effectiveness and safety, despite the novelty of the method. This is why the interest in use PRP-therapy for treating male infertility has increased.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):39-43
pages 39-43 views

Role of autophagy in response of epithelial ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin treatment and cisplatin resistance

Mazitova A.M., Topchu I.A., Mingazova L.A., Biktagirova E.M., Abramova Z.I., Gabbasov R.T.


Ovarian cancer survival rate is inversely associated with the extent of tumor metastasis. One of the main treatment approaches against ovarian cancer is employment of platinum based therapies, including cisplatin. Majority of ovarian cancer patients develop cisplatin resistance. We aimed to investigate roles for macroautophagy in response of epithelial ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin, including changes in cell motility, as well as in development of cisplatin resistance. Cisplatin treatment induced autophagy in Caov-3 cells in vitro, as well as resulted in increased cell motility. Pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy by wortmannin eliminated the effect of cisplatin on cell motility. We further selected Caov-3 cells with acquired cisplatin resistance and observed elevated baseline expression of autophagy markers in the resistant cells. Our data indicate a role for autophagy in development of cisplatin resistance by the EOC cells, as well as a potential role for cisplatin-induced autophagy in ovarian tumor metastasis.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):44-47
pages 44-47 views

A.S. Benyan, I.V. Gilevich-Rodkina, L.S. Tselkovich, R.B. Balter, E.P. Shatunova, T.V. Ivanova, A.R. Ibragimova, OA. Ilchenko, G.I. Teleeva, O.V. Tyumina, A.Yu. Ryabov Prospects for restoring the endometrium function in women with hyperplasia of the uterine mucosa after an unsuccessful attempt of extracorporeal fertilization

Benyan A.S., Gilevich-Rodkina I.V., Tselkovich L.S., Balter R.B., Shatunova E.P., Ivanova T.V., Ibragimova A.R., Ilchenko O.A., Teleeva G.I., Tyumina O.V., Ryabov A.Y.


One of the causes of infertility is endometrial hyperplasia. The treatment of it is a prerequisite before the in vitro fertilization. The aim of the study was to develop measures to prevent the development of endometrial hyperplastic processes in patients who have undergone the in vitro fertilization. The paper discusses the results of hysteroscopic, immuno-histochemical, and histological examinations of the endometrium of 179 infertile women with hyperplasia of the uterine mucosa before the ovulation stimulation in the in vitro fertilization protocols and after the protocols. The results were compared with similar indicators of 119 fertile patients with endometrial hyperplastic processes. Significant differences in the expression of endometrial receptivity were obtained. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated a significant decrease in the level of α-2 microglobulin of fertility with preserved estrogen and progesterone receptions even with a normal histological result. Based on the results of the study, an algorithm for the rehabilitation of patients after unsuccessful attempts at in vitro fertilization is proposed. It consists of three stages and allows to restore normal morphological and functional indicators of the endometrium, which is important for the subsequent implementation of the reproductive function. With a personalized approach to hormone therapy, complete restoration of endometrial function in infertile patients is achieved in 64% of cases. It was found that with an adequate reaction of the body to the therapeutic effect, endometrial reception is restored regardless of the presence or absence of fertility. As a prognostic criterion for pregnancy, it is possible to use indicators of α-2 microglobulin of fertility in the menstrual blood and ultrasound parameters of the endometrium in various phases of the menstrual cycle.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):48-54
pages 48-54 views

Analysis of efficacy of combined therapy of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in mSOD1 transgenic mice model

Mukhamedyarov M.A., Petukhova E.O., Salafutdinov I.I., Kuznetsov M.S., Safiullov Z.Z., Islamov R.R., Zefirov A.L.


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive, fatal neurode-generative disease characterized by damage of the motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord. The lack of effective methods of therapy of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is one of the most important problems of contemporary medicine. The aim of this work was to study the effectiveness of combined use of the antioxidant drug edaravone and gene-cell therapy with umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells producing vascular endothelial growth factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and neural cell adhesion molecule in the model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis on mSOD1 transgenic mice. Analysis of survival dynamics of mSOD1 transgenic mice showed that gene-cell therapy is more effective than edaravone therapy or combined therapy. Conducting of behavioral tests showed that all types of used therapy are able to support the parameters of horizontal activity and grip strength test of mSOD1 mice during 8 weeks from beginning of the therapy at the level corresponding to wild type mice. Conducted study showed that gene-cell therapy with use of umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells producing vascular endothelial growth factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and neural cell adhesion molecule is more effective than antioxidant therapy with edaravone or combined (antioxidant and gene-cell) therapy. These findings could be used in studies aimed on development of treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):55-58
pages 55-58 views

The possibility of using human hormones for maturation of swine oocytes in vitro

Smetanina I.G., Tatarinova L.V.


Gonadotropins have been used for the last 50 years in assisted reproductive technologies. Often, due to hyperstimulation, there is a worsening effect on both eggs and patients. Therefore, it is possible to use the swine oocyte maturation system in vitro as a culture model for testing hormones used in humans. The purpose of our research was to study the possibility of using human chorionic gonadotropin for maturation of swine oocytes in vitro. The criterion of successful maturation was the presence of the first polar body (MII stage), as well as the ability of matured oocytes to reach the blastocyst stage after artificial (parthenogenetic) activation. It is shown that in the medium with Ovogest(human chorionic gonadotropin derived from urine) there is a tendency to improve the maturation of the nucleus compared to the variant with Pregnyl(human chorionic gonadotropinderived from urineandused for "human” in vitro fertilization) - 59,5% vs 45,8%. After artificial activation, the oocytes reached the stage MII, the cleavage is approximately the same in both cases (89,4% vs 81,2%). But, the percentage of blastocysts obtained, both from the total number of activated eggs, and from the number of cleaving after activation, was greater in variant with Pregnyl(42,4% vs 23,4% without significant difference and 51,2% vs 26,2% with significant difference р<0,05, respectively). Our results show that human chorionic gonadotropin, used for "human” in vitro fertilization, can be used for maturation of swine oocytes in vitro, which is confirmed by the successful use of eggs in experiments on parthenogenetic activation of embryos. It is also possible to use the swine oocyte maturation system in vitro as a culture model for testing hormones used in human in vitro fertilization programs.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):59-62
pages 59-62 views

Extracellular ATP molecules effects the functional properties of granulocyte plasma membrane

Skorkina M.Y., Shevchenko T.S., Fetter V.V., Cherkashina O.V., Palchikov M.Y.


Extracellular ATP is an auto- and paracrine regulator in the mechanisms of intercellular signaling. It is the trigger starting the purinergic signaling cascade also. The aim of this work to study the effect of extracellular ATP on the functional properties (rigidity, surface potential, adhesive properties and osmoregulatory capabilities of the membrane) of the plasma membrane and the migration activity of granulocytes in experiments in vitro. In the experiment, the granulocyte subpopulation separated from the venous blood of healthy people was used. The experiment samples were incubated with adenosine-5-triphosphate disodium salt trihydrate in concentration 10 мМ that matches of ATP concentration released from blood cells during deformation stress in the microvasculature vessels. The stiffness and surface potential of a cell, the adhesion force between erythrocyte and granulocyte was measured by using the method of atomic force microscopy, tests with hypoosmotic load were performed and the migration activity of granulocytes was studied. As a result of the experiment, a decrease in stiffness and surface potential was found by 53.2% and 32.5 % (р<0.05) respectively, an increase the adhesion force between erythrocyte and granulocyte by 43.3 (p<0.05) and migration activity of the cell by 74.8% (p<0.05) compared with the control. In the hypoosmotic tests, the use of membrane reserve by granulocytes was decreased during whole time incubation compared with control under the influence of extracellular ATP. Obtained data point out to a key role of extracellular ATP on inflammation development in the vascular wall and they are able be taken into account during elaboration pharmacological regulatory targets aimed at the restoration of endothelium dysfunction.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):63-67
pages 63-67 views

Genetic analysis of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Dementyeva E.V., Vyatkin Y.V., Kretov E.I., Elisaphenko E.A., Medvedev S.P., Zakian S.M.


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is one of the most common cardiovascular pathologies. In most cases, the disease is caused by mutations in genes encoding for sarcomeric proteins. However, high genetic heterogeneity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy makes it difficult to interpret results of patients' genetic studies. The aim of this study is to check if hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 15 patients suffering from the disease is due to genetic causes. In the course of genetic analysis, a known pathogenic mutation p.Gln1233Ter in MYBPC3 causing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was found only in one patient. In six patients, mutations with uncertain clinical significance were identified in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-associated genes LDB3, MYBPC3, MyH7, MYL2, and MyPn. Three of the mutations, p.Ile730Asn in LDB3, p.Asn515del in MYBPC3, p.Arg955Trp in MYPN were found for the first time in association with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In two patients, novel mutations, p.Ser478Trp in MyBpC3 and p.Asn989Ile in MYPN, were identified. Thus, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may be accounted for by genetic causes in 8 patients more but the role of these mutations in the disease development needs to be clarified.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):68-73
pages 68-73 views

Clinical Evaluation of the efficiency of allogeneic cord blood transfusion in patients with autism

Tyumina O.V., Volchkov S.E., Ovchinnikov P.A., Trusova L.M., Bugakov A.I., Romanova S.A., Bumagina L.V., Galahova O.O.


Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is found in 1 case per 160 children and increases annually. The etiology of ASD has not yet been identified, and therefore no effective treatment is available. The therapy is focused on rehabilitation, psychological and pedagogical methods that increase patients' socialization. According to the latest findings, immune response disorders and ischemic brain damage are detected in ASD pathogenesis. In regard to this, a clinical study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of transfusion of allogeneic cord blood cells, as they participate in the regulation of the immune response and stimulation of neo-angiogenesis. A total of 20 children participated in the study (10 in control and 10 with the study group). Cell transfusion was performed three times with an interval of 1 month in the amount of 8-10х 107/per kg of patient weight. Efficiency and safety were assessed by the general condition of children, assessment of disease severity by ATEC scale, cytokine levels in plasma (IL1b, IL6, TNF-alpha, IL8, y-IFN) and immune status (CD3+; CD3+CD8+; CD3+CD4+; CD16+CD56+ and CD19+) before and after treatment, observation period - 12 months The study proved the safety of the method, the reduction of the disease severity by ATEC. No significant changes in cytokine profile and immune status were detected.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):74-79
pages 74-79 views

Therapeutic effects of intra-arterial administration of glial progenitor cells-conditioned medium in acute experimental ishemic stroke in rats

Cherkashova E.A., Salikhova D.I., Namestnikova D.D., Leonov G.E., Gubskiy I.L., Solovieva A.A., Akopyan G.B., Kurilo V.V., Nikitina M.P., Fatkhudinov T.K., Chekhonin V.P., Gubskiy L.V., Yarygin K.N., Bukharova T.B., Goldshtein D.V.


Transplantation of various types of stem cells as a possible therapy for stroke has been tested for years and the results are promising. Recently, most researchers are inclined to assume that the therapeutic effect of stem cell therapy is based on the mechanism of paracrine action associated with the secretion wide set of regulatory proteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate therapeutic effects of iPSC-derived glial progenitor cells conditioned medium in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model of the ischemic stroke. We showed that intra-arterial administration of glial progenitor cells conditioned medium promoted faster decrease of neurological deficit compared to the control group. Moreover, expression of gap43, bax, and tnfa genes involved in neuritogenesis, apoptosis and neuroinflammation was altered. However, no significant enhanced reduction of the infarct volume was registered. Our results demonstrated that administration of glial progenitor cells conditioned medium induced functional recovery after experimental stroke and may affect brain plasticity.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):80-84
pages 80-84 views

The effect of cell-mediated delivery of combination VEGF165, GDNF, and NCAM1 genes on molecular and cellular reactions in the spinal cord of pigs with contusion trauma

Davleeva M.A., Bashirov F.V., Izmailov A.A., Fadeev F.O., Sokolov M.E., Markosyan V.A., Garifulin R.R., Kuznetsov M.S., Pakhalina I.A., Minyazeva I.S., Chelyshev Y.A., Islamov R.R.


Currently, the treatments for spinal cord injury are limited. Gene therapy is one of the most promising approaches aimed at overcoming negative post-traumatic consequences in the spinal cord. Numerous studies performed in rodents indicate a positive effect of the delivery of therapeutic genes to the spinal cord to stimulate neuroregeneration. However, to bring the developed protocols of gene therapy to the stage of clinical trials, it is necessary to verify the results obtained in experiments on large laboratory animals. Objective: Immunofluorescence analysis of the response of markers of cell stress and apoptosis, synaptic proteins and neuroglia in the spinal cord of female vietnamese pot-bellied pigs after intrathecal delivery of genes encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165), glial-derived neurotrophic factor and neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM1), using human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBMC). In experimental pigs (n = 2), 4 hours after modeling a dosed contusion injury of the spinal cord at the Th8-Th9 level, 2х106 genetically modified UCBMCs overexpressing recombinant VEGF, GDNF, and NCAM molecules in 200 |jl of saline were intrathecally injected. Control animals (n = 2) were injected with 200 jl of saline into the cerebrospinal fluid. Intact pigs (n = 2) were used to obtain baseline values for immunofluorescence analysis of post-traumatic molecular and cellular responses. After 60 days, immunofluorescence analysis in the rostral and caudal parts of the spinal cord relative to the epicenter of injury revealed positive changes in experimental pigs against the background of cell-mediated delivery of the VeGf165, GDNF, and NCAM1 genes. In the anterior horns of the rostral and caudal spinal cord of animals from the therapeutic group, a higher level of fluorescence of the synaptic protein synaptophysin, a lower number of astrocytes and microglial cells were found, which may indicate functional recovery of neurons and suppression of the development of astrogliosis. In the rostral section, in the area of the corticospinal tract, gene therapy maintained the number of oligodendrocytes, which ensure myelination of regenerating axons. The results obtained suggest that genetically modified UCBMCs, overexpressing recombinant molecules VEGF and GDNF (as therapeutic molecules) and NCAM (as a molecule providing survival and targeted targeting of cell carriers), contribute to post-traumatic regeneration of the spinal cord.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):85-91
pages 85-91 views

The obtaining and characterization new soft tissue sarcoma and osteogenic sarcoma cell lines for translational research

Avdonkina N.A., Danilova A.B., Misyurin V.A., Prosekina E.A., Emelyanova N.V., Nekhaeva T.L., Skachkova O.V., Novik A.V., Pipia N.P., Gafton G.I., Levchenko E.V., Belyaev A.M., Baldueva I.A.


The rare occurrence, high histological heterogeneity, changing classification standards, and complexity of cultivation are the reasons for the failure of soft tissue and bone sarcomas (STBS) cell lines required for large-scale preclinical studies. Obtaining and characterization new STBS cell lines is the great importance for creating cell models that allow us to study the processes of oncogenesis and metastasis of mesenchymal tumors in the development of new treatment methods. Purpose: to create a collection of new characterized STBS cell lines suitable for translational research. In the study were used tumor samples from 71 patients of the N.N. Petrov National Medical Research Center of Oncology with the diagnosis of "sarcoma”. The samples were received during the operation in period 2013-2020. A standard protocol was developed for the cultivation of STBS cells. The proliferative, invasive and migration activity of the obtained cell lines in monolayer and spheroids was studied, HLA typing was performed, and the expression of cancer-testicular genes (CTG) and stem cell markers (CD133 and ALDH1). A collection of STBS cell lines, which includes 54 stable cell lines of 18 histological subtypes, including 39 soft tissue and 15 bone sarcomas cultures, with the metastatic culture of 81.5% was created (n=44). In the process of long-term cultivation there was an increase in the proliferative activity of sarcomas cells (p<0,05). Statistically significant differences in migration activity parameters between soft tissue and bone sarcomas cultures were revealed (p<0,05). A high degree of heterogeneity of the transcriptional activity of the studied CTG was found, and the absence of expression was detected in 19.2% of cases. The activity of the PRAME (55.8%) and GAGE1 (50%) genes was detected with the highest frequency (rho=0.5025; p=0.00015). PASD1 expression correlated with GAGE1 (rho=0.6951; p=0.00001), PRAME (rho=0.5743; p=0.00001). Co-expression of the NY-ESO-1 and MAGEA1 genes was also detected: (rho=0.4027; p=0.00308). The inverse correlation of average strength between the number of ALDH1 + cells and CD133+cells in cultures and the value of time to progression in patients (rho=-0.505, p=0.033; rho=-0.513, p=0.021, respectively) was established. The received and characterized cell lines can become an important component for realization of perspective translational research, a demanded tool for solution of various tasks of modern medicine, such as proteomic research, revealing of important signal mechanisms, search of target molecules for creation of new therapeutic approaches.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):92-107
pages 92-107 views

Complex assessment of a plasmid DNA mechanism of action in development of gene-activated materials

Bozo I.Y., Mavlikeev M.O., Titova A.A., Bilyalov A.I., Indeykin F.A., Pulin A.A., Eremin I.I., Komlev V.S., Isaev A.A., Deev R.V.


The number of studies related with gene-activated matrices is increasing annually; the first-in-class product has been already implemented into clinical practice for bone grafting indications. Considering specificity of the gene-activated matrices mechanism of action determined by gene constructs, there is a demand to standardize the methods allowing to characterize all the stages of biological action in vivo. Here, using on the example of a gene-activated hydrogel consisting of type I collagen and plasmid DNA with the vascular endothelial growth factor gene (VEGF165), the main steps of the plasmid DNA mechanism of action were confirmed by various methods. For this, a fluorescent Cy3, reporter plasmid DNA with the firefly luciferase gene (Luc), RT-PCR and ELISA, immunohistochemical study with antibodies to CD31 were used. The results were compared with the other scientific papers, some recommendations were formulated to determine a minimally required list of studies for the development of gene-activated materials.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):108-113
pages 108-113 views

Bone regeneration in the sockets of extracted teeth using an autologous dentin matrix

Redko N.A., Drobyshev A.Y., Deev R.V.


Dental implantation in the area of previously lost teeth is a modern way to rehabilitate edentulous patients. The search for osteoplastic materials and methods of preimplantation osteoplasty remains topical. One of these materials is an autogenous dentin matrix (ADM), which is based on a crushed extracted tooth. ADM production and application technologies are different and insufficiently tested. Nevertheless, the application of this technique may open up new clinical possibilities. The study on the use of ADM involved 20 patients from 18 to 65 years old. The patients underwent complex surgical and orthopedic treatment to restore chewing function. At the first stage, the extraction of teeth was performed with the simultaneous preservation of the socket of the extracted tooth ADM. The second stage was carried out 3-4 months later, which included the collection of bone biopsy specimen and subsequent dental implantation in the area of the previously extracted tooth. 42 specimens obtained 12-17 weeks after removal were subjected to histological examination. According to its structure, the bone tissue formed in the hole is reticulofibrous bone. Which allows us to conclude that by the time of 15-17 weeks, the processes of active reparative bone formation in the hole are completed, and the necessary local conditions for dental implantation have been created.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):114-119
pages 114-119 views

Bone plasty of extended fiber defect in orthopedic reconstructive-reconstructive surgery using original tissueengineering graft (clinical case)

Chirva Y.V., Babich M.I., Al-Hanih M.


A case of successful replacement of defects in the calcaneus and fibula in a patient with calcaneal osteoblastoclastoma using a tissue-engineered scaffold is described. The treatment used a scaffold from a collagen biomimetic and autobone. The operation was performed in two stages. At the first stage, the tumor was removed, the defect was made of the fibula. After that, the defect of the fibula was 12 cm. He was filled up with a scaffold. In the second stage, the calcaneal cavity was minimally invasively filled with the same scaffold. The result was studied after 3, 6 and 12 months. After a year, good anatomical results were obtained, the bone defect was filled.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):120-124
pages 120-124 views

Legal boundaries of research to create inherited modifications of the human embryo genome in the people's Republic of China

Blinov A.G., Gerasimov A.M., Gerasimova E.A.


The growing impact of assisted reproductive technologies on the quality of human life and health has required the leading countries to establish a legal framework in the sphere of biomedical research. The question of the legitimacy of genetic modification of human embryos for reproductive purposes is particularly acute. The public and the scientific community give a controversial ethical assessment of the prospects for human DNA editing to new generations. This fact arouses interest in the legal environment of countries that have achieved some success in the sphere of medical innovation. The People's Republic of China was one of the first countries to declare successful genetic research with human embryos. The purpose of this work is to identify the legal boundaries of research to create inherited modifications of the human embryo genome in China. The methodology used in the research: dialectical method as a universal tool of cognition with method of dogmatic (formal-legal) analysis, discourse analysis and case study. By using these methods managed to structure and meaningfully disclose the regulatory framework of the PRC, regulating genetic research of the human embryo for reproductive purposes. The legal documents regulating preclinical and clinical embryo genome studies are summarized. The particular attention is paid to legal precedent of human DNA editing.
Genes & Cells. 2020;15(3):125-130
pages 125-130 views

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