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Vol 7, No 2 (2012)


pages 11-55 views

Realities and prospects of gene therapy in cardiovascular surgery

Mzhavanadze N.D., Bozo I.Y., Kalinin R.E., Deev R.V.


The relevance pathology of the cardiovascular system, the development of effective treatments for patients with coronary heart disease, chronic lower limb ischemia are undeniable. New approaches are developed considering limitations of feasibility and efficacy of standard methods of treatment (surgical and conservative). Gene therapy is one of the most promising. This review covers the results of experimental and clinical studies to assess the position of gene therapy in cardiovascular surgery and medicine today and in the future.
Genes & Cells. 2012;7(2):58-62
pages 58-62 views

Treatment of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using of genetically modified umbilical cord bloodmononuclear cells in the preclinical studies

Rizvanov, A.A., Guseva, D.S., Salafutdinov, I.I., Bashirov, F.V., Kiiasov, A.P., Islamov R.R.


Development of the fundamental and clinical «regenerative medicine» is based on the progress of gene, stem cell and gene-cell biotechnologies. However, the reliable preclinical investigations on animal models and more over clinical trials stay far away from the available nowadays gene and cell constructions. Neuroscience is one of the fast growing fields of knowledge in biology and medicine. Pioneer experiments in neuroscience promises breakthrough in the innovative methods for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in near future. This review addresses strategies for gene-cell therapy of neurodegenerative diseases by the example of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Precisely gene modification of mononuclear fraction of umbilical cord blood cells (UCBC) by dual cassette plasmid vectors is observed. Based on our own results of transplantation of genetically modified UCBC overexpressing recombinant neural cell adhesion molecule L1, vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 2, and glial derived neurotrophic factor in different combinations we provide the experimental data for usefulness of transplantation of gene modified UCBC for treating neurodegenerative diseases. In the review we discuss the efficacy of gene modification of UCBC not only for secretion of recombinant proteins, but in increasing of transplanted cells survivability, their migration possibilities and capability to differentiate in endothelial, microglial and macroglial cell types.
Genes & Cells. 2012;7(2):63-70
pages 63-70 views

Current situation and prospects for cell therapy of the cerebral palsy

Grigoryan A.S.


Cerebral palsy is pathological condition caused by the irreversible damage or dysembryogenesis of the brain. Today there is no effective therapy of the patients suffering from cerebral palsy, and the researchers and clinicists have to search the alternative methods of treatment. Cell therapy with the use of different types of stem cells is the promising yet not well-examined approach to the correction of the status of patients. In this review the possible future methods of stem cell therapy of cerebral palsy are discussed.
Genes & Cells. 2012;7(2):71-74
pages 71-74 views

Quantative effect of improving osteoinductive property of a material due to applicationof recombinant morphogenetic bone protein rhВМР-2

Chekanov A.V., Fadeeva I.S., Akatov V.S., Solovieva M.E., Vezhnina N.V., Lekishvili M.V.


At present, novel osteoinductive materials containing recombinant bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs) are actively being developed for «regenerative medicine», traumatology and orthopedics. To evaluate the effect of rhBMPs in materials, the great interest is to study osteoinductive properties of the materials in experimental models in vivo. In this paper we show that application of bone morphogenetic protein rhBMP-2 in demineralized cancellous bone blocks provides great improving osteoinductivity of the material in the ectopic model subcutaneous implantation in rats. This improvement was reflected in multifold acceleration of mineralization and in active forming a new structured collagen matrix in the material. The model of ectopic subcutaneous implantation to rats is very convenience test system to detect increase in osteoinductivity of materials caused by application of rhBMP-2, and to identify features of ectopic bone formation in these materials.
Genes & Cells. 2012;7(2):75-81
pages 75-81 views

Experimental and histological analysis of the heterotopic transplantation results of cartilagecovered with protein-platelet membrane

Krajnik I.V., Gajvoronskij I.V., Deev R.V., Mihajlov V.V., Krajnik A.I.


The paper presents the results of experiments on free transplantation of auto- and allogeneic cartilage ear treated and not treated with platelet-rich plasma, which forms a proteinplatelet membrane (BTO) after polymerization on a cartilage fragment. We used histological and immunohistochemical analysis (identification of CD163+-cells). Dynamics of tissue reactions was defined. It was shown that allogeneic and resorbed cartilage without BTO in subcutaneous implantation the most rapidly, but autocartilage with the BTO degraded the most slowly. At the same time, continuing for at least 2 weeks the BTO is a substrate for the formation of a connective tissue capsule. The dynamics of tissue events is consistent with classical ideas about the course of reparative processes after injury: alteration, phagocytosis of tissue detritus as an integral link of the inflammatory response and granulation tissue development, its «maturation».
Genes & Cells. 2012;7(2):82-91
pages 82-91 views

Post-traumatic reactions of a rat spinal cord after transplantation of human olfactory mucosa cells

Shajmardanova G.F., Chelyshev J.A., Lebedev S.V., Savchenko E.A., Viktorov I.V., Karasjov A.V., Chehonin V.P.


In the model of adult rat spinal cord contusion on the Th9 level effect of the immediate transplantation of the human olfactory mucosa cell into the damaged area were studied. No immunosuppression was used. It was shown that transplanted cells were survived as long as 7 days after transplantation and located in rostral and caudal directions in white matter on the 2 mm distance from points of injections. It was shown also that transplanted cells migrated into peripheral zone of the damaged area. The size of damaged area in white and especially in gray matters were decreased after 30 and 60 days after transplantation. The same time after 30 days after transplantation the size of pathological cavities mostly in anterior column were obviously diminished and that number of undamaged myelinated nerve fibers were increased in number around the area of transplantation
Genes & Cells. 2012;7(2):92-96
pages 92-96 views

Cell technologies in the treatment of radiation burns: experience Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre

Kotenko, K.V., Eremin, I.I., Moroz, B.B., Bushmanov, A.J., Nadezhina, N.M., Galstjan, I.A., Grinakovskaja, O.S., Aksenenko, A.V., Deshevoj, J.B., Lebedev, V.G., Slobodina, T.S., Zhgutov, J.A., Lauk-Dubickij S.E., Eremin P.S.


The treatment of patients with radiation burns and their effects is difficult. The basis for therapeutic strategy is surgical techniques, use of which is not always effective. Moreover, surgical methods are not always feasible in its entirety because of physical condition of patients and anatomical features of affected area. In this regard, new effective therapeutic approaches are developing. Use of cellular technology is one of the most promising approaches. Burnazyan FMBC specialists have successful experience of treatment patients with local radiation injury using cell preparations from multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the clinical trial, which resulted in the present article.
Genes & Cells. 2012;7(2):97-102
pages 97-102 views

Clinical significance of the fetal microchimerism for mother

Rumyantsev A.G., Kurcer M.A., Mareeva J.M., Misjurin A.V., Roumiantsev S.A., Ustjugov A.J.


Fetal cells enter into mother`s body during pregnancy and remain there for many years. In female body accumulate genetically foreign cells of all pregnancies, regardless of what they have ended (a miscarriage, an abortion or a childbirth). It is shown that fetal cells are found in various maternal tissues and organs including blood, bone marrow, liver, lungs and skin. The interaction nature of foreign cells entering the mothers body in a natural way with her own cells and immune system of mother can be extrapolated to the study of chimerism in the iatrogenic effects on the body, such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or blood transfusion. Natural fetomaternal microchimerism has important effect on the immune status of women contributing to development of autoimmune conditions and tolerance to transplants. Understanding the fact that fetal cells able to pass through the placental and blood brain barrier, to migrate in various tissues and to differentiate in multiple cell types can be used for development of cell therapy. The studies of long-term effects feto- maternal microchimerism can get more favorable and unfavorable prognostic criteria for womens health, but also able to fundamentally change the understanding of current principles of clinical genetics. This paper presents an overview of knowledge about microchimerism appeared during pregnancy and current views on the implications of this unique biological phenomenon.
Genes & Cells. 2012;7(2):103-111
pages 103-111 views

Osobennosti zakonodatel'nogo regulirovaniyapreimplantatsionnoy i prenatal'noy geneticheskoydiagnostiki v razlichnykh stranakh

Chogovadze A.G.


Advances in methods of molecular genetic diagnosis have made it possible to determine whether a child will be born with a certain genetic disorder. And the use of assisted reproductive technologies make it possible to screen for genetic conditions at an earlier embryonic stage, before implanting the embryo in the mothers uterus. However, such diagnostic technologies can potentially be used for non-medical purposes, i.e., for sex selection. This contradicts to modern concepts of bioethics, so most countries have introduced legislative restrictions on the conduction of such genetic testing.
Genes & Cells. 2012;7(2):112-118
pages 112-118 views

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