Vol 12, No 1 (2017)

Full Issue


Modern approaches to peripheral nerve regeneration after injury: the prospects of gene and cell therapy

Karagyaur M.N., Makarevich P.I., Shevchenko E.K., Stambolsky D.V., Kalinina N.I., Parfyonova Y.V.


Natural potency of peripheral nerves to regenerate after injury is limited by time and ability of neurons to recuperate. It results in loss of function and disability of impaired subject. Existing therapeutic approaches are not capable to support nerve survival and neurite outgrowth for a sufficient period of time. This problem can be solved by application of novel gene therapeutic drugs and cell-based approaches. Present review focuses on mechanisms of nerve repair and key stages of peripheral nerve system regeneration after injury. The study provides a systematic overview of biologically active molecules involved and gives a prospect of new methods in treatment of injured nerves.
Genes & Cells. 2017;12(1):6-14
pages 6-14 views

Regenerative technologies in treatment of diabetic foot ulcers

Kalinin R.E., Suchkov I.A., Mzhavanadze N.D., Krylov A.A., Isaev A.A., Plaksa I.L., Deev R.V.


Regenerative medicine is one of the new fast growing approaches to the treatment of a variety of diseases, including oncology and cardiovascular pathology, degenerative-dystrophic diseases of bones and joints, and other complex diseases including diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is regarded as one of the most dangerous non-infectious diseases in the world with a rising incidence that reaches pandemic proportions. Treatment of patients with diabetic foot ulcers including those with peripheral arterial disease is a challenging issue due to the increased risks for poor and lethal outcomes, which makes the social and economic burden of diabetes mellitus very high. The article presents state-of-the-art regenerative technologies in treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Special attention is paid to gene and cell therapy.
Genes & Cells. 2017;12(1):15-26
pages 15-26 views

Genomic and non-genomic effects of glucocorticoids

Todosenko N.M., Koroleva Y.A., Khaziakhmatova O.G., Yurova K.A., Litvinova L.S.


The overview describes the structure of a classic nuclear glucocorticoid receptor associated bound in inactive form to proteins chaperone complex. We analyzed genomic mechanisms regulated the gene expression, as well as a fastacting glucocorticoid effects of not genomic nature.
Genes & Cells. 2017;12(1):27-33
pages 27-33 views

Tissue-engineered constructions for skeletal muscle tissue repair

Korsakov I.N., Samchuk D.P., Eremin I.I., Zorin V.L., Deev R.V., Pulin A.A.


Present review covers different types of tissue engineered constructions used for substitution of muscle tissue defects. Main methods of manufacturing of decellularized muscle scaffolds, mechanisms of action and results of their application in experiments in vivo are reviewed.
Genes & Cells. 2017;12(1):34-37
pages 34-37 views

Role of macrophages in pathomorphogenesis of alcoholic liver disease

Burganova G.R., Deev R.V., Kiyasov A.P.


Alcoholic liver disease combines various structural and functional impairments of liver caused by excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol, as a direct hepatotoxic agent, is metabolized in the liver and affects both resident cells and their microenvironment. These changes are reflected in the resulting imbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators synthesized by the liver macrophages. To date, it is known about the polarization and phenotypic diversity of this cell population, and about macrophages and monocytes involvement in the development of alcoholic hepatitis. These facts allow us to consider macrophages as potential therapeutic targets. However, the available data do not fully disclose the mechanisms of inter- and intradifferon interactions in the human body. The review discusses the results of current studies on the involvement of liver macrophages in the pathomorphogenesis of alcoholic liver disease and the potential for their use in the treatment of this disease.
Genes & Cells. 2017;12(1):38-40
pages 38-40 views

Cytotoxic activity of T-2 toxin for a immortalized of cattle fetal lung epithelium cells

Idiyatov I.I., Valiullin L.R., Biryulya V.V., Shangaraev N.G., Raginov I.S., Tremasov M.I., Lekishvili M.V., Nikitin A.I.


T-2 toxin produced by microscopic fungi induces apoptosis in cells of various body tissues. The purpose of this study was to assess T-2 toxin cytotoxic effect on fetal calf lung epithelium cells. Cells were cultured in a nutrient medium containing T-2 toxin at a concentration of 6000, 3000, 2000, 1000, 500, 100, 50 and 25 ng/ml for 20 hours. The cytotoxic effect of T-2 toxin was assessed by morphological parameters, proliferative activity and cell survival. It was found that the changes in morphology, proliferation, mitotic activity of cells, as well as their survival depended on the concentration of T-2 toxin. High doses of the toxin prevented the cells to form a monolayer, suppressed proliferation, led to changing of their shape, fragmentation and the high level of apoptosis. At doses of 50 and 100 ng/ml monolayer poorly occurred. At a concentration of 25 ng/ml, the toxin had no significant effect on the studied parameters. Morphological analysis was confirmed by cytometry, results of evaluation of proliferative and mitotic activity, cytotoxicity.
Genes & Cells. 2017;12(1):41-46
pages 41-46 views

Magnetophoretic properties of human fetal fibroblasts magnetically labeled with citrate stabilized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

Turchyn V.V., Legenkiy Y.A., Solopov M.V., Popandopulo A.G., Bespalova S.V., E.Ya. Fistal I.Y.


Cell transplantology is a perspective and actively developing field of regenerative medicine, but its effectiveness often remains relatively low for some indications. Appliance of magnetic nanoparticles and magnetic fields can increase efficacy of cell transplantation. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) is a most prospective type of magnetic nanoparticles for magnetically controlled targeting of cells in vivo. In the investigation human fetal fibroblasts were labeled with citrate stabilized SPION (SPION-Cit) that refer to anionic magnetic nanoparticles. 100, 200, 300 and 500 дд Fe/ml doses of magnetic nanoparticles and incubation times of 1, 2 and 3 h were used. The effectiveness of magnetic labeling of cells was evaluated by magnetophoresis in a special chamber using disk NdFeB magnet with diameter of 6 mm and thickness of 3 mm and field induction of 0,255 T: magnetophoretic velocity of magnetized cells in magnetic field gradient was assessed and their magnetic susceptibility was calculated. Viability of magnetically labeled cells was evaluated by trypan blue staining and MTT-test. The value of magnetic susceptibility of magnetically labeled fetal fibroblasts was dose and incubation time depended. A capture distance of labeled cell with the magnet was in a range of 3-4 mm. Magnetophoretic movement of control fibroblasts was not observed. Viability of labeled cells was not decreased substantially in ranges of nanoparticles concentrations 100-300 дд Fe/ml and incubation times 1-3 h. In the concentration of 500 дд Fe/ml partial cell death and exfoliation of cell layer from culture flask observed (signs of low grade exfoliation also observed in the labeling conditions of 300 дд Fe/ml for 3 h). According to our data, most optimal conditions for magnetic labeling of human fetal fibroblast with SPION-Cit is particles concentration 100 дд Fe/ml for 3 h, which provides the capture distance of labeled cells with the magnet about 4 mm.
Genes & Cells. 2017;12(1):47-53
pages 47-53 views

Comparative characterization of assessive methods of the cytotoxic properties of biological scaffolds

Kuevda E.V., Gubareva E.A., Sotnichenko A.S., Gumenyuk I.S., Gilevich I.V., Nakohov R.Z.


Assessment of cell viability and metabolic activity on the scaffolds is an important part of the decellularized matrix characterization and its application possibilities to create tissue-engineered constructs. A variety of methods for assessing the matrix cytotoxic properties is not always characterized by methodological unity and has spread parameters using different protocols that require further investigation. On recellularized biological rat lung and diaphragm matrices the basic methods for determining the cytotoxic properties of biological scaffolds were studied. It is established that widely described in foreign literature colorimetric method for assessing the optical density of the treated and control cells and samples with the subsequent comparative analysis does not give a complete representation of cell viability on the scaffold. Calculation of cell viability based on mathematical formulas seems to be the most objective method of the cytotoxic properties of biological scaffolds evaluation. A promising method for assessing cell activity on biological scaffolds is to measure fluorescent activity of Alamar Blue reagent followed by quantification of cells proliferation. Colorimetric analyses of the absorption of the same agent without regard to the fluorescence afford terminated information and require the development of algorithms for the integrated assessment of cell viability on the scaffolds.
Genes & Cells. 2017;12(1):57-61
pages 57-61 views

Nonwoven polycaprolactone scaffolds for tissue engineering: the choice of the structure and the method of cell seeding

Arutyunyan I.V., Tenchurin T.K., Kananykhina E.Y., Chernikov V.P., Vasyukova O.A., Elchaninov A.V., Makarov A.V., Korshunov A.A., Burov A.A., Podurovskaya Y.L., Chuprynin V.D., Uvarova E.V., Degtyarev D.N., Shepelev A.D., Mamagulashvili V.G., Kamyshinskiy R.A., Krasheninnikov S.V., Chvalun S.N., Fatkhudinov T.K.


Nonwoven polycaprolactone materials produced by electrospinning are perspective internal prosthetic implants. Seeding these implants with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells stimulates the replacement of the prosthesis with recipient's own connective tissue. Electrospinning method was used for producing polycap-rolactone matrices differing in thickness, pore diameter, fiber size, and biomechanical properties. Labeled cells were seeded on scaffolds in three ways: (1) static, (2) dynamic, and (3) directed flow of the cell suspension generated by capillary action. Cell distribution on the surface and the interior of the scaffolds was studied; the metabolic activity of cells was measured by MTT assay. Static seeding method yielded fully confluence of cells covered the entire scaffold surface, but the cells were located primarily in the upper third of the matrix. Dynamic method proved to be effective only for scaffolds of thickness greater than 500 microns, irrespective of the pore diameter. The third method was effective only for scaffolds with the pore diameter of 20-30 microns, regardless of the material thickness. Resorbable nonwoven polycaprolactone electrospun materials have appropriate biomechanical properties and similar to native tissue matrix structures for internal prosthesis. The choice of the most effective cell seeding method depends on the spatial characteristics - the material thickness, pore diameter, and fibers size, which are determined by the electrospinning conditions.
Genes & Cells. 2017;12(1):62-71
pages 62-71 views

Analysis of regenerative medicine products market

Korsakov I.N., Nadelyaeva I.I., Eremin I.I., Pulin A.A., Kotenko K.V., Zorin V.L.


In recent years, based on review of normative documentation of Russian Federation, United States of America, Europe and Asian countries, financial reports and press releases of commercial and non-commercial organizations acting in the field of biological technologies and regenerative medicine, clinical trials databases, information resources of state institutions regulating medicinal drugs and regenerative medicine products circulation, significant growth of regenerative medicine products at advanced clinical stages is brought out, as well as significant growth of cumulative investments for regenerative medicine industry and growth of investments for this line of business on the part of major pharmaceutical and biotechnological companies. Analysis of regenerative medicine industry was performed, main factors for its course of development were recognized, and recommendations were provided on development of new Russian regenerative medicine markets
Genes & Cells. 2017;12(1):72-89
pages 72-89 views

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