Telocytes: localization, structure, functions and significance in pathology

Cite item


The review article presents the material analyzing and summarizing the information about the localization, ultramicroscopic structure, functions and significance in pathological processes of newly discovered cells - telocytes. The information about molecular markers of telocytes are considered. The questions about the tissue belonging of these cells are discussed, the relevance of studying their role in the development of pathological processes in different organs is emphasized. The analysis of literature data was carried out taking into account the fundamental provisions of the doctrine of the cell-differon organization of tissues.

Full Text

Restricted Access

About the authors

I. A Odintsova

S.M. Kirov Military-medical academy

D. R Slutskaya

S.M. Kirov Military-medical academy

T. I Berezovskaya

S.M. Kirov Military-medical academy


  1. Кахаль С.Р. Автобиография (Воспоминания о моей жизни). М.: Медицина; 1985.
  2. Faussone Pellegrini M.S., Cortesini C., Romagnoli P. Ultrastructure of the tunica muscularis of the cardial portion of the human esophagus and stomach, with special reference to the so-called Cajal’s interstitial cells. Arch. Ital. Anat. Embriol. 1977; 82 (2): 157-77.
  3. Thuneberg L. Interstitial cells of Cajal: intestinal pacemaker cells? Adv. Anat. Embryol. Cell Biol. 1982; 71: 1-130.
  4. Popescu L.M., Faussone Pelegrini M.S. Telocytes - a case of serendipity: the winding way from Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) via Interstitial Cajal-like Cells (ICLC) to telocytes. J. Cell. Mol. Med. 2010; 14(4): 729-40.
  5. Большой медицинский энциклопедический словарь. Изд. 4-е, испр. и доп. Москва: РИПОЛ классик; 2007.
  6. Руководство по гистологии. В. 2 т. Под ред. Р.К. Данилова и В.Л. Быкова. СПб.: СпецЛит; 2001.
  7. Terminologia histologica. Под ред. В.В. Банина и В.Л. Быкова. Москва: ГЭОТАР-Медиа; 2009.
  8. Varga I., Blankova A., Konarik M. at al. The Terminologia Histologica after 10years: Inconsistencies, mistakes, and new proposals. Ann. Anat. 2018; 219: 65-75.
  9. Rusu M.C., Nicolescu M.I., Jianu A.M. et al. Esophageal telocytes and hybrid morphologies. Cell Biol. Int. 2012; 36: 1079-88.
  10. Faussone Pellegrini M.S., Bani D.: Relationships between telocytes and cardiomyocytes during preand post-natal life. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2010; 14: 1061-3.
  11. Cretoiu S.M., Cretoiu D., Marin A. et al. Telocytes: ultrastructural, immunohistocemical and electrophysiological characteristics in human myometrium. Rep. 2013; 145: 357-70.
  12. Popescu L.M., Manole C.G., Gherghiceanu M. et al. Telocytes in human epicardium. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2010; 14: 2085-93.
  13. Popescu L.M., Ciontea S.M., Cretoiu D. at al. Novel type of interstitial cell (Cajal-like) in human fallopian tube. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2005; 9(2): 479-523.
  14. Misra R. Serendipity and Science. Science Rep. 2008, 45: 9-13.
  15. Rosa I., Marini M., Manetti M. Telocytes: an emerging component of stem cell niche microenvironment. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 2021; 69(12): 795-818.
  16. Митрофанова Л.Б., Хазратов А.О., Гальковский Б.Э. и др. Телоциты в сердце и головном мозге человека в норме и при патологии. Биомедицинский журнал Медлайн.ру 2020; 21(84): 1074-88.
  17. Popescu L.M., Manole C.G., Gherghiceanu M. et al. Telocytes in the architecture of uterine fibroids. Folia medica Cracoviensia 2019; 59(4): 33-44.
  18. Чекмарева И.А., Паклина О.В., Скрипченко Д.В. Телоциты (интерстициальные кахалеподобные клетки) маточных труб при остром и хроническом сальпингите. Гены & Клетки 2021; XVI(2): 39-46.
  19. Низяева Н.В., Сухачева Т.В., Куликова Г.В. и др. Ультраструктурные особенности телоцитов плаценты. Бюллетень эксп. биол. мед. 2016; 162(11): 653-60.
  20. Aleksandrovich V., Pasternak A., Basta P., Sajewicz M., Walocha J.A., Gil K. Telocytes: facts, speculations and myths. Folia Medica Cracoviensia 2017; LVII: 1: 5-22.
  21. Vannucchi M.G. Traini C. Interstitial cells of Cajal and telocytes in the gut: Twins, related or simply neighbor cells? BioMol. Concepts 2016; 7: 93-102.
  22. Vannucchi, M.G. The Telocytes: Ten Years after Their Introduction in the Scientific Literature. An Update on Their Morphology, Distribution and Potential Roles in the Gut. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020; 21: 4478.
  23. Vannucci M. G., Faussone-Pellegrini M.S. The telocyte subtypes. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2016; 913: 115-26.
  24. Pieri L. Vannucchi M.G. Faussone-Pellegrini M.S. Histochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of an interstitial cell type different from ICC and resident in the muscle coat of human gut. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2008; 12: 1944-55.
  25. Vannucchi, M.G. Traini C. Manetti M. et al. Telocytes express PDGFRa in the human gastrointestinal tract. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2013; 17: 1099-108.
  26. Traserra S. Villarte S. Traini C. et al. The asymmetric innervation of the circular and longitudinal muscle of the mouse colon differently modulates myogenic slow phasic contractions. Neurogastroenterol. Motil. 2020; 32: e13778.
  27. Cretoiu S.M. Telocytes and other interstitial cells: from structure to function. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021; 22(5271): 2-3.
  28. Chang Y., Li C., Gan L. et al. Telocytes in the spleen. PlosOne 2015; 10(9): e0138851
  29. Bani D., Formigli L., Gherghiceanu M. et al. Telocytes as supporting cells for myocardial tissue organization in developing and adult heart. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2010; 14: 2531-8.
  30. Cretoiu D., Xu J., Xiao J., Cretoiu S.M. Telocytes and Their Extracellular Vesicles-Evidence and Hypotheses. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016; 17(8): 1322.
  31. Faussone-Pellegrini M.S.; Bani D. Relationships between telocytes and cardiomyocytes during preand post-natal life. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2010; 14(5): 1061-3.
  32. Gawad S.K. Histological and immunohistochemical study of telocytes in the heart of male albino rats in different age groups. Sci. J. Al-Azhar Med. Fac., Girls. 2020; 4(3): 373-82.
  33. Vannucchi M.G., Traini C., Guasti D. et al. Telocytes subtypes in human urinary bladder. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2014; 18: 2000-8.
  34. Gevaert T., Vanstreels E., Daelemans D. et al. Identification of different phenotypes for the interstitial cells in the upper and deep lamina propria of the dome of the human bladder. J. Urol. 2014; 192: 1555-63.
  35. Kurahashi M., Nakano Y., Hennig G.W. et al. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor а-positive cells in the tunica muscularis of human colon. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2012; 16: 1397-404.
  36. Kurahashi M., Nakano Y., Peri L.E. et al. A novel population of subepi-thelial platelet-derived growth factor receptor а-positive cells in the mouse and human colon. Am.J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 2013; 304: G823-34.
  37. Gevaert T., De Vos R., Van Der Aa F., et al. Identification of telocytes in the upper lamina propria of the human urinary tract. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2012; 16: 208593.
  38. Bei Y., Zhou Q., Fu S. et al. Cardiac telocytes and fibroblasts in primary culture: different morphologies and immunophenotypes. PlosOne. 2015; 18: e0115991.
  39. Suciu L.C., Popescu B.O., Kostin S. et al. Platelet derived growth factor receptor-b-positive telocytes in skeletal muscle inter-stitium. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2012; 16: 701-20.
  40. Nees S., Weiss D.R., Juchem G. Focus oncardiac pericytes. Pflugers Arch. 2013; 465: 779-87.
  41. Zhou Y., Pan P., Yao L. et al. CD117-positive cells of the heart: progenitor cells ormast cells? J. Histochem Cytochem. 2010; 58: 309-16.
  42. Suciu L., Popescu L.M., Gherghiceanu M. et al. Telocytes in human term placenta:morphology and phenotype. Cells Tissues Organs 2010; 192: 325-39.
  43. Zheng Y., Cretoiu D., Yan G. et al. Comparative proteomic analysis of human lung telocytes with fibroblasts. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2014; 18(4): 568-89.
  44. Короматов И., Санг-Уиг-Ли, Абдуллаева Д.А. Телоциты - новый тип клеток как кандидат морфологического субстрата иглоукалывания и меридианов китайской медицины. Биология и интегративная медицина 2021; 1(48): 419-35.
  45. Cretoiu S.M., Simionescu A.A., Caravia L. et al. Complex effects of imatinib on spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractions in human nonpregnant myometrium. Acta Physiol. Hung. 2011; 98(3): 329-38.
  46. Hatta K., Huang M.L., Weisel R.D., Li R.K. Culture of rat endometrial telocytes. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2012; 16(7): 1392-6.
  47. Цибулевский А.Ю. К вопросу о природе телоцитов кожи. Вестник медицинского института «РЕАВИЗ» 2020; 4: 134-6.
  48. Zheng Y., Zhu T., Lin M. et al. Telocytes in the urinary system. J. Transl. Med. 2012; 10: 188.
  49. Vannucchi M.G., Bani D., Faussone-Pellegrini M.S. Telocytes сontribute as сell progenitors and differentiation inductors in tissue regeneration. Current Stem Cell Res. Ther. 2016; 11: 383-9.
  50. Albulescu R., Tanase C., Codrici E. et al. The secretome of myocardial telocytes modulates the activity of cardiac stem cells. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2015; 19: 1783-94.
  51. Kostin S. Cardiac telocytes in normal and diseased hearts. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 2016; 55: 22-30.
  52. Milia A.F., Ruffo M., Manetti M. Telocytes in Crohn’s disease. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2013; 17: 1525-36.
  53. Manetti M., Rosa I., Messerini L., Ibba-Manneschi, L. A loss of telo-cytes accompanies inflammation-driven fibrotic remodelling of the colonic wall in ulcerative colitis. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2015; 19: 62-73.
  54. Buller N.V., Rosekrans S.L., Westerlund J., van den Brink G.R. Hedgehog signaling and maintenance of homeostasis in the intestinal epithelium. Physiol. 2012; 27: 148-55.
  55. Greicius G., Kabiri Z., Sigmundsson K. et al. PDGFRa+ pericryptal stromal cells are the critical source of Wnts and RSPO3 for murine intestinal stem cells in vivo. PNAS USA 2018; 115: E3173-81.
  56. Shoshkes-Carmel M., Wang Y.J., Wangensteen K.J. et al. Sub-epithelial telocytes are an important source of Wnts that supports intestinal crypts. Nature 2018; 557: 242-6.
  57. Kinchen J., Chen H.H., Parikh K. et al. Structural remodeling of the human colonic mesenchyme in inflammatory bowel disease. Cell 2018: 175: 372-86.
  58. Kondo A., Kaestner K.H. Emerging diverse roles of telocytes. Dev. 2019; 146: 175018.
  59. Kaestner K.H. The Intestinal Stem Cell Niche: A central role for Foxl1-expressing subepithelial telocytes. Cell Mol. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2019; 8: 111-7.
  60. Venema H., van den Akker N.M., Bax N.A. et al. Origin, fate and function of epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs) in normal and abnormal cardiac development. Sci. World J. 2007; 12(7): 1777-98.
  61. Sucov H.M., Gu Y., Thomas S. et al. Epicardial control of myocardial proliferation and morphogenesis. Pediatr. Cardiol. 2009; 30(5): 617-25.
  62. Torella D., Ellison G.M., Mendez-Ferrer S. et al. Resident human cardiac stem cells: role in cardiac cellular homeostasis and potential for myocardial regeneration. Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med. 2006; 3: 8-13.
  63. Wessels A., Perez-Pomares J.M. The epicardium and epicardially derived cells (EPDCs) as cardiac stem cells. Anat. Rec. A Discov. Mol. Cell Evol. Biol. 2004; 276(1): 43-57.
  64. Winter E.M., Gittenberger-de Groot A.C. Epicardium-derived cells in cardiogenesis and cardiac regeneration. Cell Mol. Life Sci. 2007; 64(6): 692-703.
  65. Митрофанова Л.Б., Бобков Д.Е., Оганесян М.Г. и др. Исследование электрофизиологических свойств телоцитов атриовентрикулярного узла и перифокальной зоны синусного узла у человека и свиньи. Российский кардиологический журнал 2020; 25(2): 155-63.
  66. Wolnicki M., Aleksandrovych V., Gil K. Interstitial cells of Cajal and telocytes in the urinary system: facts and distribution. Folia Med. Cracoviencia 2016; 4: 81-9.
  67. Митрофанова Л.Б., Горшков А.Н., Коновалов П.В. и др. Телоциты в сино-атриальном узле человека. Морфологическое доказательство пейсмекерной активности клеток и возможности проводить электрический импульс. Российский кардиологический журнал 2017; 9(149): 42-9.
  68. Митрофанова Л.Б., Хазратов А.О., Красношлык П.В. и др. Морфологическое исследование телоцитов в различных отделах нормального головного мозга взрослого человека. Биомедицинский журнал Медлайн. ру 2018; 19: 281-306.
  69. Лискова Ю.В., Стадников А.А., Саликова С.П. Роль телоцитов в сердце в норме и при патологии. Архив патологии 2017; 2: 58-63.
  70. Skowron K., Aleksandrovych V., Kurnik-Lucka M. et al. Aberrations in the female reproductive organs and a role of telocytes in a rat model of anorexia nervosa. Folia Med. Cracoviensia 2018; LVIII(3): 115-125.
  71. Popescu L.M., Manole E., Serboiu C.S. et al. Identification of telocytes in skeletal miscle interstitium: implication for muscle regeneration. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2011; 6: 1379-92.
  72. Кирюхин С.О., Макарова О.В. Морфологические изменения мышечной оболочки и интерстициальных клеток Кахаля ободочной кишки при экспериментальном язвенном колите. Архив патологии 2016; 78(5): 27-32.
  73. Diaz-Flores L., Gutierrez R., Garcia M.P. et al. Telocytes/CD34+ Stromal Cells in Pathologically Affected White Adipose Tissue. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020; 21(24): 9694.
  74. Ionescu-Tirgoviste C. Pancreatic cell clock and telocytes. Romanian J. Diabetes, Nutrition and Metab. Dis. 2011; 18(1): 1-3.
  75. Bei Y., Wang F., Yang C., Xiao J. Telocytes in regenerative medicine. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2015; 19(7): 1441-54.
  76. Савостьянов Г.А. Структурные основы биологии развития и трехмерной гистологии. Новый подход к изучению канцерогенеза. СПб.: Лема; 2020.
  77. Одинцова И.А., Юриков К.Е. Гистионная организация рецепторного аппарата слухового анализатора. Известия российской Военно-медицинской академии 2021; 1: 375-7.
  78. Клочков Н.Д. Гистион как элементарная морфофункциональная единица. Морфология 1997; 112(5): 87-8.
  79. Одинцова И.А., Данилов Р.К. Учение о тканях - основа гистологии как триединой учебной научной дисциплины. В. кн.: Вопросы морфологии XXI века. Выпуск 6. СПб.: ДЕАН; 2021: 17-25.
  80. Данилов Р.К., Одинцова И.А. Гистогенетический анализ как основа механизмов реактивности, регенерации и патологии органов и систем. В. кн.: Вопросы морфологии XXI века. Выпуск 5. СПб.: ДЕАН; 2018: 8-16.

Copyright (c) 2022 PJSC Human Stem Cells Institute

СМИ зарегистрировано Федеральной службой по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций (Роскомнадзор).
Регистрационный номер и дата принятия решения о регистрации СМИ: ПИ № ФС 77 - 57156 от 11.03.2014.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies