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An effective treatment for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM), which provides an alternative to hormone replacement therapy, is transplantation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Donor β-cells are transplanted both in the form of a complete pancreas, or in the form of isolated islets of Langerhans. However, the application of this method is limited due to the lack of donor material and the need for lifelong immunosuppressive therapy that has a detrimental impact on the weakened DM patient's body. An alternative method of obtaining IPCs is to differentiate stem or progenitor cells. Pancreatic differentiation capability has been demonstrated for various types of stem cells Currently, induced pluripotent stem cell IPSC) are considered to be the most promising source of IPCs, including those obtained from mature cells of the patients themselves Firstly, such IPCs can be gained in unlimited quantities. Secondly, in the case of autologous transplantation they are least exposed to the recipient body's immune attack, thereby making it possible to completely discard immunosuppressive therapy. IPSCs introduction into clinical practice is hindered by the fact that they provoke the formation of teratomas in the recipient>s body. Moreover, they retain this ability even after differentiation because of a number of undifferentiated cells preserved in the population This review focuses on contemporary protocols for obtaining IPCs from IPSCs. These protocols mimic β-cells formation stages during embryonic development. The review also covers the application of IPC immuno-isolating containers for transplantation. Their semipermeable walls, on the one hand, protect the transplant from the recipient>s immune system, and on the other hand, they suppress the risk of the transplant causing tumor formation. in addition, attention will be paid to the use of IPCs derived from IPSCs as a model object for studying the processes occurring in β-cells at normal circumstances as well as during DM.

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M. Y Sheremetieva

Research Centre of Medical Genetics


T. B Bukharova

Research Centre of Medical Genetics

D. V Goldstein

Research Centre of Medical Genetics


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